Archive for November, 2010

Common Fireworks Materials

November 4, 2010

                    Oxidizing Agents

  English Name Molecular Formula
Potassium  Nitrate KNO3
Potassium  permanganate KCIO4
Potassium  Chlorate KCIO3
Potassium  Chlorate Ba(CIO3)2
Barium Nitrate Ba(NO3)2
Strontium Nitrate Sr(NO3)2
Sodium Nitrate NaNO3
Ammonium per chlorate NH4CIO4
Potassium Dichromate K2Cr2O7
Potassium permanganate KMnO4
Barium peroxide BaO2
Iron Oxides Fe3O4
Copper Oxides CuO
Lead Oxides Pb3O4



English Name Molecular Formula
Aluminum Al
Magnesium Mg
Magnalium Mg Al
Sulfur S
Phosphor P
Antimony Trisulphide Sb2s3
Arsenic Sulphide Realgar AsS
Orpiment As2s3
English name Molecular formula
Iron Fe
Hexamine (CH2)6N4
Nitro cotton (C6H7O2(NO2)(OH)3)n
Charcoal C
Lactose (C12H24O12)
Dextrin (C6H10O5)n.H2O
Tungsten W
Nickel Ni
Molybdenum Mo
Manganese Mn
Silicon Si
Vanadium V
Chrome Cr
Zirconium Zr
Boron B
Silicon-iron Fesi
Zinc Zn
Hexachlorobenzene C6CI6


                       Special Effects Materials

English Name Molecular Formula
Potassium Per chlorate KCIO4
Potassium chlorate KCIO3
Potassium picrate C6H2(NO2)3OK
Gallic Acid C7H6O5.H2O
Hexachloroethane C2CI6
sulphur S
Realgar AsS
Authracene C14H10
Naphthalene C10H8


                   Binding Agents

English name Molecular formula
Shell-lac C16H24O5
Phenolic Alde Hyde C48H42O7
Polyvingl chloride (CH2-CHOH)12
Colophony C20H30O2
Starch (C6H10O5)n
Lactose C12H24012
Dextrin (C6H10O5)N.H2O
Glutin (CH2-NH-CO)n


                 Catalytic Agents

English name Molecular formula
Manganese Dioxide MnO2
Boracic Acid H3BO3
Zinc Oxide ZNO
Alcohol C2H5OH
Vegetable Oil C16H26O2
Paraftin Wax  
Stearic Acid C17H35COOH


                        Color Producing Agents

English Name Molecular Formula
Sodium Oxalate Na2C2O4
Ultramarine Na2S2.3NaAISiO4
Cryolite-Greenland Spar Na2SiF6
Cryolite Greenland Spar Na3AIF6
Sodium Carbonate Na2CO3
Baking Soda Na2HCO3
Sodium Chloride NaCI
Sodium Nitrate NaNO3
Barium Carbonate BaCO3
Barium Nitrate Ba(NO3)2
Strontium Nitrate Sr(NO3)2
Strontium Carbonate SrCO3
Strontium Oxalate SrC2O4.H2o
Copper Acetoarsenite

(Paris Green)

Copper Arsenite CuHAsQ3
Bluestone CuSO4.5H2O
Copper Cu
Basic copper carbonate Cu2(OH)2CO3
Calcium carbonate CaCO3

The Fireworks Display for the Wedding Ceremony

November 4, 2010

That night after dinner, there was to be the promised fireworks display. Afei seemed to have made himself the sponsor and exponent of this display. He talked about in the whole day and watched the pyrotechnics set up the high pole on the west of the house near the temple ground. Ti was thought that the orchard at the back was too small and too full of trees which would obstruct the view, and Malan’s father wanted this to be a show for the whole neighborhood. The wedding was well known , and rumors about the special fireworks had gone about, so that at seven o’ clock the alleys all round were jammed with people, and some even sat perched on the temple wall.

   The series of different fireworks were arranged on horizontal bars like sail yards extending from a wooden pole about twenty feet high. The fuses were so timed and connected that once the first spark was set the scenes followed one another automatically. Before the display started, it looked like a number of packages of paper and folded bamboo frames suspended on the yards; yet these had to be so arranged and protected from sparks that they should not catch fire and burn before their time. At the  top of the pole was a fairy stork, which started the show by emitting from its mouth a flame which shot high into the sky and then with an explosion broke into a cascade of falling stars of gold and purple. Then followed nine successive shooting rockets, which were called “nine dragons entering the clouds.”

   “this is not the best,” said A fei. “ there is the rotating monkey to come nest.”

True it was, for suddenly there sprang up from one of the bamboo frames the shape of a red monkey lighted from within and whizzing around by the force of its backfire, spreading from its buttocks a circle of hissing sparks,  so that the faces of the women and children standing near the pole were suddenly lighted.

“that’s the monkey passing urine!” cried Afei triumphantly.

Next a great green watermelon burst open, scattering sparks and making a succession of small explosions. Red jade put her hands over her ears in fear, and Afei said, “that is nothing to be afraid of . Afei seemed to have memorized the whole sequence. When the last cinders from the watermelon were dying out, out dropped indeed a cluster of purple and white grapes, suddenly brightening the scene with a silent glow. Everybody gasped and enjoyed the beauty, watching the resinous stuff gradually burning out and dropping to the ground.

After this came the “dropping peaches” and a rotating wheel turning by its own force on the rocket principle, and then came the most beautiful scene of all. All of a sudden a seven-storied paper pagoda five feet long sprang from its frame and hung down, every story lighted from within. Two or three silent scenes followed, which spread thick clouds of colored smoke. Then came the “quick-opening lotus” and the “slow-opening lotus”. Then “darting mice” were let loose in mid-air in the form of small colored flames which fell to the ground darting and wriggling in all directions and creating great excitement in the inner circle before they died away. After these came various lighted tableaus such as “Eight Fairies Holding the Longevity peach” and “seven saints subduing the demon”, with the red demon burning up in smoke. There were pastoral scenes and scenes of houseboats and vermilion towers with ladies sitting in them. The display ended with “three successive promotions” in the form of a great rocket which gave out three successive explosions high in the air. When this was finished, the crowd went away, regretting that the end came so soon.

Fireworks Safety And Transportation

November 3, 2010

Mush current legislation is based on concepts derived from the United Nations recommendations for the Transport of Dangerous Goods (often referred to as the “orange book”). Although these recommendations are not mandatory, they are widely accepted and fairly widely understood. The fundamental problem with using the recommendations for general legislation is that they address only the hazard of materials in their state for transport. For fireworks theist usually means packaged, and does not (and indeed cannot and should not) address their storage, use or manufacture. It is in these areas that legislation based on the UN scheme of classification of dangerous goods breaks down.

The UN recommendations classify all explosives in one of the following groups:

1 .  Those packages that pose a mass explosion hazard.

2 .  Those packages that pose a projectile hazard.

3 .  Those packages that pose a hazard from fiery projections.

4 .  Those packages that pose only a limited hazard.

5 .  Extremely insensitive substances that pose a mass explosion hazard.

6 .  Articles containing extremely insensitive substances that do not have a mass explosion hazard.

   Furthermore, the united nations assigns a compatibility group to packaged goods, and defines which compatibility groups may be packaged or transported together. The result of testing assigns any item to a particular hazard group, and compatibility group, and the item as presented is then assigned a four digit UN number, which identifies both the hazard of a particular packaged item and its correct shipping name. thus all fireworks are assigned one of the following UN number:

0333 ( 1.1G ) Fireworks that pose a mass explosion risk.

0334 ( 1.2G ) Fireworks that pose a projectile risk.

0335 ( 1.3G ) Fireworks that pose a fiery projectile risk.

0336 ( 1.4G ) Fireworks that pose a low risk.

0337 ( 1.4S ) Fireworks that pose a very limited risk.

    It is essential to understand that the assignment of a particular firework package into one of the five groups above is critically dependent on the packaging of that item.

Table 11.1 shows a hypothetical example on how 75mm maroon (salute) shells could be assigned to any of the five UN numbers if packaged in particular ways.

                   Table 11.1

  UN Hazard   Packaging    Comments
1.1   G (0333) Say 75 X maroons in an extremely strong walled box. There is the possibility of sympathetic

Detonation in this case.

1.2 G (0334) Say 75 X maroons in a metal

“ammunition box”

It is possible that the explosive fragmentation

Of the box will lead to metallic fragments of

Sufficient size and energy to force assignment

Into this hazard class.

1.3 G (0335) Say 75X maroons in a

Fiberboard box.

In this case it is possible that the action of one maroon bursting will project fragments of the other maroons in such a way as to cause assignment into this hazard class.
1.4 G (0336) A single maroon in a

Fiberboard box

In this case the hazard will be very local to

The box.

1.4 S (0337) A single maroon in an

“elephant” sized box.

With a large enough box the effect of the maroon busting will be confined within the box itself, thus leading to assignment into this hazard class.

In general most fireworks fall into either the 1.3G (0335) or 1.4G (0336) classifications.

Table 11.1 shows that it is pointless to try to define which fireworks are suitable for consumer use by using hazard classifications.  Although it is undoubtedly true that more powerful fireworks are likely to have greater classifications (e.g. 1.3G rather than 1.4G), careful packaging can reduce the hazard. Indeed, there are several ongoing trials which attempt to legitimately classify even large shells as 1.4G by using wire-mesh lined fiberboard boxes.

In addition, the UN recommendations define, in the most general terms, the types of packaging that are suitable for the carriage of all dangerous goods, and explosives and fireworks in particular. This leads to the assignment of a UN mark (not to be confused with the UN hazard code) to a particular package that has been tested to be suitable for transport of a particular item of combination of items.

This may appear to be a classic “chicken and egg” paradox. You need to have a suitable package, that is certified to bold a particular hazard type, in which to test the item to assign it that hazard type. Fortunately, most regulatory authorities have agreed methods by which this paradox may be overcome.

The basis of the UN recommendations for fireworks is that if packaged in a suitable way, the hazards arising from accidental ignition of a package are reasonably well defined and understood. Theist is particularly important for the emergency services in case of an accident. They need to be able to assess the frisk of attempting to control the incident.

Fireworks And Liuyang

November 2, 2010

The history of fireworks production in liuyang spans more than 1300 years. It goes like this “the earliest fireworks came into being in the tang dynasty(7th~10th century),and Chinese fireworks manufacture began to flourish during the song dynasty; its birthplace is liuyang” in 1980 liuyang was named the “ home of fireworks” by china’s central government. With its excellent technology and advanced line of production, liuyang fireworks are well-known at home and abroad.

    Liuyang fireworks have received many quality awards in china, as well as in many international product competitions, including the following:

In 1929, the first place in the Chinese national goods exhibition.

In 1933, the Quality Award at the Chicago international fair.

In 1985, the “red lantern” shell got the gold Award in the Chinese products Quality competition.

In 1986, the first place at the 21st Monaco international fireworks display competition.

In 1988, the Chinese manufacturing and Art Flower Award, the Gold A ward at the Chinese light products fair, and the Quality award of the Chinese manufacturing and art flower award.

In 1990, the Chinese Manufacturing and Art Flower Awards.

In 1991, the Quality Award of the Foreign Trade Department.

In 1992, the Gold Medal at the Macao international Fireworks Display Competition.

In 1996, the Gold Medal at the 9th Macao International fireworks display competition.

In the 24 years since 1979, when the policy reformation and the opening up of  china to foreign trade was implemented, liuyang has achieved a great leap forward in industry and trade relations with the international business community. Moreover, china’s entry into the WTO and Beijing’s successful bid to host the 2008 Olympic games have brought still greater prospects to liuyang fireworks.

Looking back upon our past, we feel very proud. In these 24 years of reformation and greater openness, we have made contributions to society not only in material wealth but also in spiritual civilization. In this period, liuyang fireworks enterprises have created an accumulated profits and generated tax yields of 10 billion yuan, nearly 20 times that of the 30 years before 1979. During this time, the liuyang fireworks industry has also won numerous awards in many competitions at national and international level.

Looking to the future, we have tremendous confidence in the continued success of the liuyang fireworks industry. We believe that the brilliant past of liuyang fireworks will usher in an equally bright future. Firstly, we are producing famous fireworks with a long, 1300-year history, which means that we have a built-in advantage in the competitive quality market. Secondly, we are supported by a determined local government working hard to promote our industry abroad, and by a dedicated, motivated, well educated, creative and conscientious workforce. Therefore, we believe with good reason that, despite the intense international competition, the liuyang fireworks industry will continue to successfully ride the huge tide of the global economy into a brilliant future.

We warmly welcome friends from all walks of life, both at home and abroad, to liuyang, the home of fireworks.

Fireworks Business Talk

November 1, 2010

Gao Ming and Mr. Johnson had a lot of phone calls and emails in the past half year. Gao Ming tried his best to introduce Liuyang Fireworks to Mr. Johnson, the executive manager of Flyflower Fireworks company. Now Mr. Johnson has some interest in establishing into business relations with Gao Ming’s company and he makes a decision to come to liuyang and visit the company and see the products. Gao Ming picked Mr. Johnson up at Huanghua Airport and they were on their way to liuyang.

The following is their dialogue;

Johnson:    Gao Ming, I once heard from my friend and read from a book that Chinese fireworks have a long history, but the fact is that I don’t know much about them except that they have the best quality and the longest volume of production in the world. Could you kindly tell me something about them?

Gao Ming:  OK, I do not know much a bout the history of Chinese fireworks, so I can only tell you what I know. The earliest fireworks in china came into being in the period of the tang dynasty. The manufacture of Chinese fireworks began to flourish during the song dynasty. In liuyang, we have honor li tian as the “forerunner of fireworks”.  Because he found a method of making fireworks. Firecrackers were used in early times, just as they are now, to scare a way evil spirits from wedding and birth celebrations and from funerals, and they were also much in evidence at various religious festivals. These firecrackers were often made by packing gunpowder into bamboo cases or rolled tubes, so laying the foundations of modern firework manufacture. They exploded when thrown on to the fire, hence the origin of the name “firecracker”. An encyclopaedia dated around 1630, refers to “fire trees and silver trees” used in the tang dynasty (7th~10th centuries).

Johnson:  thank you so much, Gao Ming! You are really a fireworks specialist.

                                  At the Hotel

         One hour later, they arrived at Grandson city resort (the best botel in liuyang).

Gao Ming:  Here we are! Look over there that’s the liuyang river, a well-known river ,and the subject of a bousehold-song. Let’s take the luggage to room 1108.

Johnson:    OK, let’s go.

Gao Ming:   would you like to take a rest now? we’ll have supper in the dining room. How about at 5:30?

Johnson:   OK, see you later!

Gao Ming:  Aright, bye!

                            At the table

Gao Ming:   Dinner is ready. Shall we go into the dining room? This way, please.

Johnson:     Thank you

Gao Ming:   Mr. Johnson, would you like to take this seat?

Johnson:    OK, thanks.

Gao Ming:   Well, this drink is liuyang he, it is named after our well-known river-the liuyang river.

Johnson:     I believe that’s the way many famous liquors and wines are named.

Gao Ming:   this is roast duck, and this is sweet and sour fish.

Johnson:     Thank you, Gao Ming. What a feast you’re giving me!

Gao Ming:   Listen! (Bang!) The fireworks display is starting. In front of the hotel, you can enjoy different fireworks displays almost every night. There are many fireworks factories in liuyang and they often display their products’ effects. Shall we go out and enjoy it?

Johnson:     OK!

      (6 months later Mr. Johnson returns to liuyang, since the last time he visited he and Gao Ming have negotiated a business deal.)

                         A  Negotiation

Johnson:    Good morning, Gao Ming. Good to see you again.

Gao Ming:  It’s good to see you, too, Mr. Johnson. It’s been several months since we last saw each other. How have you been keeping?

Johnson:    Fine, thanks. And you ? How is Business?

Gao Ming:  Great! We’ve been doing extremely well. In fact America has become one of our best customers. We’ve increased our sales here ten-fold over the last year or so.

Johnson:    I’m pleased to hear it . I hope they keep growing.

Gao Ming:  One can never have too much success!

Johnson:    Now, to come to the point. We would like to increase our original order to 3 inch shells, but we are not sure which kind we want. Here is a list of our requirements.

Gao Ming:  (taking the list and looking at it) I’ve brought a series of catalogues on our latest models with me . all of them meet these requirements. Would you like to look over them?

Johnson:    I certainly would. Helping yourself to tea and cigarettes while I leaf through them.

Gao Ming:   Thank you.

Johnson:    ( A fter several minutes of looking through the catalogues) This is the one we’re interested in. Could you give me an idea of your price?

Gao Ming:  here are our price lists. The quotations are all in US dollars net , FOB. I’m sure you’ll find our prices most competitive.

Johnson:    But these prices are higher than the ones you quoted 6 months ago!

Gao Ming:  I’m sure you’ll appreciate that the costs of production have gone up considerably recently. Our prices still compare very favorably with those offered by other fireworks companies.

Johnson:    I must tell you that your price is higher than some of the quotations we have received elsewhere.

Gao Ming:  that may well be so. But everybody in the fireworks trade knows that our products are of top quality and incorporate the most advanced technology.

Johnson:   I grant that they are of the best quality, but we simply cannot order them at this price.

Gao Ming:  well, considering that you are ordering three thousand cartons, we could reduce our price by say, -2%

Johnson:    When I say your prices are  too high, I don’t mean they are too high merely by 2%.

Gao Ming:  What kind of a reduction did you have in mind then?

Johnson:    If we are to place an order with you I think a discount of about 10% would be sufficient.

Gao Ming:  10%! That’s out of the question! You can’t expect us to make such a large reduction.

Johnson:   in that case there is no need for further discussions. We might as well call the whole deal off.

Gao Ming:  let’s not be hasty, Mr. Johnson. Perhaps it’s unwise for either of us to insist on his own price. How about meeting each other half way?

Johnson:   what exactly do you propose?

Gao Ming:   I propose a reduction of 4%

Johnson:    that is hardly half way, Mr. Gao! Let’s both make a further concession-6%

Gao Ming:  You certainly drive a hard bargain, Dr. Johnson. But I’m afraid 5% is our rock bottom price.

Johnson:    very well, then 5% it is.